The project will provide the population in the municipalities of Dharan, Janakpur, Nepalgunj, and Siddharthanagar with better access to municipal infrastructure and services in a socially inclusive manner. In accordance with the priorities of each municipality, integrated urban environmental improvements, including drainage systems, solid waste management facilities, and urban roads, will be implemented in Janakpur, Nepalgunj, and Siddharthanagar municipalities. A water supply development subproject will be implemented in Dharan municipality. The project will also undertake community development programs (CDP), focusing primarily on poverty pockets in the municipalities and communities that may not benefit directly from major infrastructure improvement subprojects. Gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) will be mainstreamed in all subprojects in the municipalities, and the capacity to address GESI in the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) will be strengthened by establishing an appropriate institutional structure and mechanisms for GESI mainstreaming.